|7000BC. Earliest Scottish
inhabitants are Mesolithic hunters living along the rugged
coastline feeding on fish and small animals. Animals provided
clothing from pelts and tools from horns.
|4000BC. Neolithic period. First homes
built of wood and stone, evidence of land clearing and
farming. Noted for elaborate burial chambers. Skara Brae
Orkney oldest known settlement.
|2500BC. The Beaker People arrive from
Europe settling mainly on the East coast. Noted for their
earthware pottery. Many examples found in burial cribs.
|2000BC. Bronze Age.
Knowledge of metallurgy growing, Axes and spears are fashioned
from an abundance of copper and tin. First known use of
jewellery with findings of metal earrings.
|500BC. Iron Age. Widespread use of iron
replacing bronze, metal is harder and becomes better weapon.
Earliest fortifications discovered from this period, built
from wood and stone hinting of primitive castle. Brochs
prevalent in NW Scotland and are unique to the British
(Scotland) invaded by Roman Legion under rule of Emperor
Titus, many roads and fortresses were built.
|105AD. Roman Ninth Legion disappears at
the hands of Caledonian forces without trace. Romans withdraw
to a line near modern day border with England.
|121AD. Caledonian soldiers continue to
harass the Roman garrisons. Emperor Hadrian orders wall to be
built between Carlisle and South Shields. Much of the wall
still exists today.
|142AD. Southern Scotland re-taken by Romans. Emperor Antoninus Pius
orders Antonine Wall built from Old Kilpatrick, Dunbartonshire
to Bridgeness Stirlingshire. A distance of 36 miles. This
cutting by half the size of Caledonian lands
virtually abandon Scotland north of Hadrians wall. They never
return as a threatening force again.
|397AD. The coming of Christianity. St
Ninian, a Romano/Brit brings Christianity to Scotland. Founded
the monastery Candida Casa near Whithorn. Roofless ruin still
offshore island called Iona founded by Columba. Becomes
religious centre and burial ground of many Kings.
|793AD. Viking warriors arrive on the east
coast. Known for their elaborate and strong boats, they sailed
from Norway and conquered much of Scotland and Ireland.
|843AD. Scotsman Kenneth
MacAlpin becomes King of the Pictish throne. It is not known
how exactly someone from the less powerful Scottish kingdom,
succeeded in taking over it's powerful English
|1034. Duncan I
becomes first King to rule over Picts and Scots, first
semblance of unity within Scotland.
|1040. Macbeth replaces Duncan, rules for
17 years till 1057.
|1165. William the Lion becomes the longest reigning monarch in
Scotland at 49 years in 1214. Scottish Royal Standard "Lion
Rampant" flag named after him.
|1263. Alexander III defeats Haco
of Norway at Largs. Western Isles, Hebrides and Isle of Man
formally ceded to Scotland in 1266.
|1296 7th July. King Edward devastates
Scotland. Destroys the Great Seal of Scotland, National
Archives shipped to London, removes Stone of Destiny from
Scone and places it in Westminster Abbey. There it remained
for 700 years.
September. William Wallace rules Scotland after a
decisive battle with English troops at Stirling
|1306. Robert the
Bruce crowned King of Scots.
|1314. Robert the Bruce effects one of the
worst defeats ever inflicted upon an English army at
|1320. Declaration of Arbroath. Robert the Bruce's crowning
achievement. Confirmation of an independent
|1411. St Andrews
University founded. Scottish students no longer had to travel
abroad to seek higher education.
|1513. Battle of Flodden. Largest Scottish
army ever assembled is massacred along with King James IV by
English troops led by Henry VIII. Scotland loses it's
prosperity for over 100 years because of this battle.
|1587. Mary Queen of Scots
executed. Believed to be an adulterer and murderer of a former
husband. Neither has been proven.
|1603. Union of the Crowns. James VI
inherits England, favour's a united Scotland and England.
Union Jack flag created bearing the crosses of St Andrew and
|1642. Civil war
within England. Scotland bears no obligation to become
enters English war on promise of Protestant system in England,
which never happened.
|1650. Oliver Cromwell of England invades Scotland.
|1688. Crown offered to William IV of
Orange and Mary.
|1692. Massacre of Glencoe. Under William IV rule, Clan Campbell
turned on their hosts the Macdonald's killing many of them.
This massacre intensified anti-English sentiment.
|1700. Darien Scheme to colonize a Spanish
territory for business reasons. Thousands of Scots invest in
the scheme and lose out due to Darien being infested with
Malaria. Darien Scheme is largest commercial failure in
Scotland's history and was a deciding factor in the Act of
|1707. Act of Unions.
Scotland and England parliaments unite.
|1715. Jacobite Highland uprising against
(English rule) the Act of Union.
|1745. Jacobite uprising with Bonnie
of Culloden. The final Jacobite uprising sees the massacre of
thousands of Highlanders. Highland clearances brought into
effect forbidding Highlanders to wear tartan nor play their
bagpipes. Many sent to the colonies serving years of
hard-labour. In essence an English attempt at eradicating the
Revolution. After Culloden Scotland enjoyed relative peace and
quiet. Industrial growth was phenomenal and with the invention
of the steam engine by James Watt, Scotland became a model
|1843 18 May. The
Great Disruption. Free Church of Scotland is
|1879 28 December. 19
month old rail bridge over the River Tay collapses during
storm. Takes train and 75 passengers to their death. Tay
Bridge disaster still worst engineering structural failure in
Rail Bridge opens. Crosses River Forth near Edinburgh. Still
most famous iron structure in Scotland to this
|1914-1918. First World
|1920. The Great
|1939-1945. Second World War.
|1964. Forth Road Bridge opens. Straddling the River Forth alongside
it's older sister the Forth Rail Bridge.
|1974. Scottish National Party shocks
Westminster by winning 7 seats in parliament, or 22% of the
June. Scotland's first oil from the North Sea comes
ashore at Sullom Voe in the Shetland's. Thus adding Scotland
to the list of oil producing nations.
|1995 17 October. Skye Bridge opens after
3 yrs 3 months of construction. Joining for the first time,
the island of Skye with the Scottish mainland.
|1997 11 September. The Referendum. 74.3%
of Scots vote for a separate Parliament for Scotland.
|1999 1 July. Queen
Elizabeth II opens the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh.