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A timeline of Scotland's history.

7000BC. Earliest Scottish inhabitants are Mesolithic hunters living along the rugged coastline feeding on fish and small animals. Animals provided clothing from pelts and tools from horns.
4000BC. Neolithic period. First homes built of wood and stone, evidence of land clearing and farming. Noted for elaborate burial chambers. Skara Brae Orkney oldest known settlement.
2500BC. The Beaker People arrive from Europe settling mainly on the East coast. Noted for their earthware pottery. Many examples found in burial cribs.
2000BC. Bronze Age. Knowledge of metallurgy growing, Axes and spears are fashioned from an abundance of copper and tin. First known use of jewellery with findings of metal earrings.
500BC. Iron Age. Widespread use of iron replacing bronze, metal is harder and becomes better weapon. Earliest fortifications discovered from this period, built from wood and stone hinting of primitive castle. Brochs prevalent in NW Scotland and are unique to the British Isles.
81AD. Caledonia (Scotland) invaded by Roman Legion under rule of Emperor Titus, many roads and fortresses were built.
105AD. Roman Ninth Legion disappears at the hands of Caledonian forces without trace. Romans withdraw to a line near modern day border with England.
121AD. Caledonian soldiers continue to harass the Roman garrisons. Emperor Hadrian orders wall to be built between Carlisle and South Shields. Much of the wall still exists today.
142AD. Southern Scotland re-taken by Romans. Emperor Antoninus Pius orders Antonine Wall built from Old Kilpatrick, Dunbartonshire to Bridgeness Stirlingshire. A distance of 36 miles. This cutting by half the size of Caledonian lands (Scotland).
212AD. Romans virtually abandon Scotland north of Hadrians wall. They never return as a threatening force again.
397AD. The coming of Christianity. St Ninian, a Romano/Brit brings Christianity to Scotland. Founded the monastery Candida Casa near Whithorn. Roofless ruin still present today.
563AD. Tiny offshore island called Iona founded by Columba. Becomes religious centre and burial ground of many Kings.
793AD. Viking warriors arrive on the east coast. Known for their elaborate and strong boats, they sailed from Norway and conquered much of Scotland and Ireland.
843AD. Scotsman Kenneth MacAlpin becomes King of the Pictish throne. It is not known how exactly someone from the less powerful Scottish kingdom, succeeded in taking over it's powerful English neighbour.
1034. Duncan I becomes first King to rule over Picts and Scots, first semblance of unity within Scotland.
1040. Macbeth replaces Duncan, rules for 17 years till 1057.
1165. William the Lion becomes the longest reigning monarch in Scotland at 49 years in 1214. Scottish Royal Standard "Lion Rampant" flag named after him.
1263. Alexander III defeats Haco of Norway at Largs. Western Isles, Hebrides and Isle of Man formally ceded to Scotland in 1266.
1296 7th July. King Edward devastates Scotland. Destroys the Great Seal of Scotland, National Archives shipped to London, removes Stone of Destiny from Scone and places it in Westminster Abbey. There it remained for 700 years.
1297 11th September. William Wallace rules Scotland after a decisive battle with English troops at Stirling Bridge.
1306. Robert the Bruce crowned King of Scots.
1314. Robert the Bruce effects one of the worst defeats ever inflicted upon an English army at Bannockburn.
1320. Declaration of Arbroath. Robert the Bruce's crowning achievement. Confirmation of an independent Scotland.
1411. St Andrews University founded. Scottish students no longer had to travel abroad to seek higher education.
1513. Battle of Flodden. Largest Scottish army ever assembled is massacred along with King James IV by English troops led by Henry VIII. Scotland loses it's prosperity for over 100 years because of this battle.
1587. Mary Queen of Scots executed. Believed to be an adulterer and murderer of a former husband. Neither has been proven.
1603. Union of the Crowns. James VI inherits England, favour's a united Scotland and England. Union Jack flag created bearing the crosses of St Andrew and St George.
1642. Civil war within England. Scotland bears no obligation to become involved.
1644. Scotland enters English war on promise of Protestant system in England, which never happened.
1650. Oliver Cromwell of England invades Scotland.
1688. Crown offered to William IV of Orange and Mary.
1692. Massacre of Glencoe. Under William IV rule, Clan Campbell turned on their hosts the Macdonald's killing many of them. This massacre intensified anti-English sentiment.
1700. Darien Scheme to colonize a Spanish territory for business reasons. Thousands of Scots invest in the scheme and lose out due to Darien being infested with Malaria. Darien Scheme is largest commercial failure in Scotland's history and was a deciding factor in the Act of Unions.
1707. Act of Unions. Scotland and England parliaments unite.
1715. Jacobite Highland uprising against (English rule) the Act of Union.
1745. Jacobite uprising with Bonnie Prince Charlie.
1746. Battle of Culloden. The final Jacobite uprising sees the massacre of thousands of Highlanders. Highland clearances brought into effect forbidding Highlanders to wear tartan nor play their bagpipes. Many sent to the colonies serving years of hard-labour. In essence an English attempt at eradicating the Clans.
1785. Industrial Revolution. After Culloden Scotland enjoyed relative peace and quiet. Industrial growth was phenomenal and with the invention of the steam engine by James Watt, Scotland became a model nation.
1843 18 May. The Great Disruption. Free Church of Scotland is formed.
1879 28 December. 19 month old rail bridge over the River Tay collapses during storm. Takes train and 75 passengers to their death. Tay Bridge disaster still worst engineering structural failure in British history.
1890. Forth Rail Bridge opens. Crosses River Forth near Edinburgh. Still most famous iron structure in Scotland to this day.
1914-1918. First World War.
1920. The Great Depression.
1939-1945. Second World War.
1964. Forth Road Bridge opens. Straddling the River Forth alongside it's older sister the Forth Rail Bridge.
1974. Scottish National Party shocks Westminster by winning 7 seats in parliament, or 22% of the national vote.
1975 11th June. Scotland's first oil from the North Sea comes ashore at Sullom Voe in the Shetland's. Thus adding Scotland to the list of oil producing nations.
1995 17 October. Skye Bridge opens after 3 yrs 3 months of construction. Joining for the first time, the island of Skye with the Scottish mainland.
1997 11 September. The Referendum. 74.3% of Scots vote for a separate Parliament for Scotland.
1999 1 July. Queen Elizabeth II opens the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh.
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